Memory has changed more in the last 70 years than it has in the last 165,000 years. For the better part of our existence as humans, memory has been something fluid, variable, and socially constructed. The emergence of images and the invention of writing did little to change the way in which we understand our own memory. A heterogeneous group of living narratives that appear and disappear, that constantly mutate and change, that cannot be fixed on any medium. It would not be until the invention of the phonograph, film, and video that human beings began to think about the nature of memory, because although, at first, these technologies seemed like a perfect memory, we soon discovered their plastic and volatile character. From that point forward, the human race was left to reflect—using the phonograph, film, and video—on those objects, people, places, portraits, and stories that we insist on associating with the construction of what we have come to call memory.